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Revelation 11:1-14. Sixth Trumpet

Rev 11:1.2. Then I was given a reed like a measuring rod. And the angel stood saying, “Rise and measure the temple of God, the altar and those who worship there. But leave out the court which is outside the temple, and do not measure it, for it has been given to the Gentiles. And they will tread the holy city underfoot for forty-two months.

The Adventists were told to analyze the sanctuary teachings from the Bible leaving out the outer court. As they did this, they found out that the earthly sanctuary was moved to heaven after the crucifixion of Christ. Heb 8:1.2. They also discovered that Christ became our High Priest in the heavenly sanctuary. Heb 4:14.

So what happened in 1844 when Christ did not come to destroy this earth? From Christ´s ascension to the heavenly sanctuary, he officiated in the first apartment named the Holy Place, where the seven candle sticks stood, the altar of incense stood and the table with 12 pieces of flat bread lay. In 1844, Christ entered into the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary as the High Priest did once a year in the earthly sanctuary: on the Day of Atonement. Lev 16:

It is this message that needed to be prophesied again to many peoples, nations, tongues, and kings from the time of the end in 1844.

Rev 11:2. And they will tread the holy city underfoot for forty-two months.

What does the Holy City mean in this text and in the book of Revelation?

Rev 3:12. (To the Church in Philadelphia). He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out no more. I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God. (The temple is related to the New Jerusalem. He who overcomes is a citizen of the New Jerusalem and pillar of the temple of God).

Rev 21:2.3. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I Heard a loud voice from heaven saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God himself will be with them and be their God.” (The New Jerusalem is likened to a bride who are the Church of all believers who keep the Ten Commandments of God and the Faith of Jesus Christ. The New Jerusalem is related to the tabernacle or sanctuary. The tabernacle is no longer used as a means of atonement for sins, but God is a substitute for the tabernacle in heaven).

Conclusion

The holy city refers to overcomers and believers in God. The holy city refers to believers as a bride adorned for her husband who is Jesus Christ. The citizens of the New Jerusalem are God´s people.

Therefore, the holy city on earth refers to the citizens of the kingdom of God and they are his people on earth. God´s people are also related to the teachings of the services of heavenly sanctuary outlined in the books of Hebrews and Leviticus.

Rev 11:2. And they will tread the holy city underfoot for forty-two months.

Rev 12:6. Then the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that they should feed her there one thousand two hundred and sixty days. In prophetical writings, one day is equal to one year. Num 14:34, Eze 4:6. Therefore, when it says in the text “one thousand two hundred and sixty days” this means prophetical 1,260 years. This figure is also equal to “a time, times and half a time” in Rev 12:14. When we add this figure up, we have one time plus two times plus half a time which equals 3½ times. One time is equal to 360 years in prophecy. So 3½ times is equal to 1,260 years. Therefore, these two verses in Rev 12: 6.14, reinforce each other in Biblical prophetic time. In addition, the 42 months in Rev 11:2.3. are also equal to 1,260 years in Biblical prophecy. If we times 42 months with 30 prophetic days for each month, this gives us 1,260 days or prophetic years. Hence, there is harmony in these calculations.

The forty-two months refers to the 1,260 day/year prophecy outlined in Rev 12:6.14. This period was during the Dark Middle Ages when the papacy persecuted all Bible believing Christians who were citizens of the holy city, in the kingdom of God, and substituted the services of the heavenly sanctuary with their own system of forgiveness, by coming to the priests for confession. This system incorporated into the Roman Catholic Church worldwide and is called the abomination of desolation written by Daniel in Dan 11:31.

Rev 11:3. And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.

Who are the two witnesses in this verse? A short word study to determine the understanding of the two witnesses.

Mat 18:16. But if he will not hear, take with you one or two more, that by the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.

Mat 24:14. And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all nations, and then the end will come.

John 1:6.7. There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. This man came for a witness to bear witness of the Light, that all through him might believe.

John 10:25. The works that I do in my Father´s name they bear witness of me.

Acts 1:8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.

Acts 10:43. To him all the prophets witness that, through his name, whoever believes in him will receive remission of sins.

Rom 3:21. But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is revealed, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets (We understand the Law to be the Torah and means the first five books of the Old Testament written by Moses. The prophets refer to Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and the minor prophets).

Heb 10:15. But the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us; for after he had said before, “This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord.

Conclusion

Witnesses are related to two or three people, the gospel written in the New Testament, John the Baptist, the Holy Spirit, all the prophets in the Old Testament, the Law and the Prophets in the Old Testament. To summarize witnesses would refer to writings in the Old and New testament Bible and people who witness to the message in these books.

Rev 11:3. And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.

The two witnesses were clothed in sackcloth. What does this citation mean?

Gen 37:34. Then Jakob tore his clothes, put sackcloth on his waist, and mourned for his son many days. (This was in relation to his son Joseph who he believed was killed by a beast).

2 Kings 19:1. And so it was, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he tore his clothes, covered himself with sackcloth, and he went into the house of the Lord.

Conclusion

When one is covered in sackcloth, it is a sign of sorrow and mourning because of death or one is nearing the state of death.

The two witnesses are symbols of the Old and New Testament Bible, plus believers who preach and teach from the Bible with the power of the Holy Spirit. They prophesied for one thousand two hundred and sixty days clothed in sackcloth. This period of 1,260 are prophetical years which was from 538 to 1798, during the Dark Middle Ages of papal rule in the Roman Catholic Church. Why in sackcloth? Because it was forbidden by the papacy for any member to preach and teach from the Bible in public. “All versions of the Holy Bible, in any vernacular language, made by non-Catholics are prohibited; and especially those published by the Bible Societies, which have been more than once condemned by the Roman Pontiffs, because in them the wise laws of the Church concerning the publications of the sacred books are entirely disregarded.”[1]

Rev 11:4. These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God of the earth.

What do olive trees represent in the Bible?

Judges 9:8. The trees once went forth to anoint a king over them. And they said to the olive tree, reign over us. (The trees in this parable refer to the men of Shechem who went to ask first the olive tree who represented Gideon to reign over them, but he refused Judges 8:22.23. Then they asked the bramble who represented Abimelech to be king).

Psalm 52:8. But I am a green olive tree in the house of God; I trust in the mercy of God forever and ever. (Psalm 52:6 olive tree refers to the righteous).

Psalm 128:3. Your wife shall be like a fruitful vine in the very heart of your house, your children like olive plants – – -. (The olive tree represents in verse one, blessed is everyone who fears the Lord, who walks in his way).

Jeremiah 11:16. The Lord called your name, Green Olive Tree, lovely of good fruit. (Refers to the evil house of Israel and the house of Judah in verse 17).

Hosea 14:5.6. I will be like the dew to Israel; he shall grow like the lily and lengthen his roots like Lebanon. His branches shall spread; his beauty shall be like an olive tree. (Israel likened to an olive tree).

Zechariah 4:2-6. And he said to me, “What do you see?” So I said, “I am looking, and there is a lampstand of solid gold with a bowl on top of it, and on the stand seven lamps with seven pipes to the seven lamps. Two olive trees are by it, one at the right of the bowl and the other at its left.” So I answered and spoke to the angel who talked with me, saying, “What are these, my Lord?” Then the angel who talked with me answered and said to me, “do you not know what these are?” And I said,” No my Lord.” “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: `Not by my might nor by power, but by My Spirit, ` says the Lord of hosts.

Zechariah 4:14. So he said, “These are the two anointed ones, who stand beside the Lord of the whole earth.” (The two olive trees represent the word of the Lord and the Holy Spirit).

Romans 11:17. And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree. (Paul is talking to the Gentiles in Rom 11:13 who are grafted into the olive tree representing Spiritual Israel in Rom 11:25-27).

Revelation 11:4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God of the earth. Zechariah 4:14. So he said, “These are the two anointed ones, who stand beside the Lord of the whole earth.” (The two olive trees represent the word of the Lord and the Holy Spirit).

Conclusion

The two olive trees represent the word of the Lord and the Holy Spirit. In addition they represent Gideon, the righteous, children of believers, spiritual Israel and Judah.

Rev 11:5. And if anyone wants to harm them, fire proceeds from their mouth and devours their enemies. And if anyone wants to harm them, he must be killed in this manner.

What does fire proceeding from the mouth mean in prophecy?

A short word study on fire related to the mouth.

Jerm 5:14.15. Behold, I will make my words in your mouth fire, and this people wood, and it shall devour them. I will bring a nation against you from afar, O house of Israel. (The nation of Babylon destroyed the city of Jerusalem in 586 BC).

Jerm 23:29. Is not my word like fire? Says the Lord, and like a hammer that breaks the rocks in pieces? (Refers to the false prophet and priests using the word of God in vain in verse 34. And as for the prophet and priest and the people who say, “The oracle of the Lord!” I will punish that man and his house. (This punishment is over time upon the city of Jerusalem in 586 BC).

Is 30:30.31. The Lord will cause his glorious voice to be heard, and show the descent of his arm, with indignation of his anger, and the flame of a devouring fire – – -. For through the voice of the Lord Assyria will be beaten down, as he strikes with a rod. (Voice and fire are related to punishment and destruction).

Is 33:11. Your breath, as fire shall devour – – – like thorns cut up they shall be burned in the fire. (Impending judgment and destruction over time upon Zion).

Is 66:15.16. For behold the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. For by fire and by his sword the Lord will judge all flesh; and the slain of the Lord shall be many. (Refers to Jerusalem. The first and second coming of Christ with judgment and destruction over time).

Conclusion

Fire from the mouth is related to destruction from another nation, punishment over time, impending judgment, and destruction of the wicked at the second coming of Christ.

Rev 11:6. These have power to shut heaven, so that no rain falls in the days of their prophecy.

What does rain mean in this text? Is it literal or symbolic rain? The context is using symbolic words from Rev 11:4-6. So we shall interpret rain in symbolic language.

A short word study on the word rain.

Deut 32:2. Let my teaching drop as the rain, my speech distill as the dew.

Psalm 72:6.7. He shall come down like rain upon the grass before mowing, like showers that water the earth. In his days the righteous shall flourish. (Rain is related to the Messiah bringing righteousness at his first coming).

Proverbs 16:15. In the light of the king´s face is life, and his favor is like a cloud of the latter rain. (Rain is related to a king´s favor).

Hos 6:3. Let us know, let us pursue the knowledge of the Lord. His going forth is established as the morning; he will come to us like the rain, like the latter and the former rain to the earth. (Rain is related to the first and second coming of Christ).

Hos 10:12. Sow for yourselves righteousness; reap in mercy; break up your fallow ground, for it is time to seek the Lord, till he comes and rains righteousness on you. (Rain is related to the coming of the Lord with righteousness).

Joel 2:23. Be glad then, you children of Zion, and rejoice in the Lord your God; for he has given you the former rain faithfully, and he will cause the rain to come down to you – The former rain, and the latter rain in the first month. (This can be interpreted literally and symbolically because the context refers to the Day of the Lord. Joel 2:1. However, Peter the disciple used this text to explain the outpouring of the Holy Spirit like the former and the latter rain on the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2:16-21).

Joel 2:28. And it will come to pass afterward that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh; your sons and daughters shall prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men shall see visions. (This text was used by Peter as a partial fulfillment on the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2:16-21).

James 5:7. Therefore be patient, brethren, until the coming of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, waiting patiently for it until it receives the early and latter rain. (Rain in this text is related to the second coming of Jesus Christ).

Conclusion

Rain in symbolic language is related to knowledge from the Lord, righteousness, God´s teachings, kings favor, the outpouring of the Holy Spirit like on the Day of Pentecost, the first and the second coming of Jesus Christ.

Rev 11:6. These two witnesses: The Old testament and the New Testament Bible have power to shut heaven through the power of the Holy Spirit, so that no rain falls in the days of their prophecy. The outpouring of the Holy Spirit giving knowledge, righteousness, God´s teachings and favor to the people was limited during the Dark Middle Ages from 538 to 1798. Why? Because the papacy had control over the Bible and who read it in the Latin language. The people were not allowed to read it until the time of the Reformation when Martin Luther and John Wycliffe translated the Bible into the vernacular of the people.

Rev 11:6. They (two witnesses) have power over waters to turn them to blood.

This is not literal but symbolic. The waters represent the waters of life. John 4:13.14. That is eternal life through Christ. However, the waters of life coming from the Church during the Middle Ages were false teachings of eternal life through works, like penance and praying to statues of saints. These teachings of works were turned into blood by the two witnesses: the Holy Spirit and the Old and New Testament Bible.

Blood represents the washing of sins through Christ´s blood in Rev 1:5. It also represents pollution and defilement in Hos 6:8. Therefore, these two witnesses through the Bible had power to reveal the false teachings of the Church during The Middle Ages, that they were not truth, but polluted and defiled  like blood.

Rev 11:6. These (two witnesses) have power . . . to strike the earth with all plagues, as often as they desire.

There is no symbolic interpretation in the Bible for the word plague. Therefore, it is to be interpreted as literal. For example: Deut 28:58.59. If you do not observe all the words of this law that are written in this book (Deuteronomy), that you may fear this glorious and awesome name, the Lord your God, then the Lord will bring upon you and your descendants extraordinary plagues-great and prolonged plagues – and serious and prolonged sicknesses.

Rev 11:7. When they finish their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war against them, overcome them, and kill them.

This beast who ascends out of the bottomless pit refers to Satan in the book of Revelation. For example:

Rev 9:1.2. Then the fifth angel sounded: And I saw a star fallen from heaven to the earth. To him was given the key to the bottomless pit. And he opened the bottomless pit, and smoke arose out of the pit like smoke of a great furnace. So the sun and the air were darkened because of the smoke.

Who represents the fallen star in this text?

The only star which fell from heaven was the one Jesus Christ mentioned in reference to Satan. Luk 10:18. I saw Satan fall like lightening from heaven. The text does not state the word star. But Satan was one of the stars of heaven before he fell and was cast out of heaven.

Rev 12:3.4. And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads. His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. (The dragon refers to Satan, the devil or the serpent in Rev 12:9. The stars refer to angels in Rev 1:20. Satan is also referred to as an angel in Rev 9:1 and in Ezek 28:13.14. He is also referred to as an angel of light 2 Cor 11:14)

What does the bottomless pit mean in the book of Revelation?

There are only six other texts that mention the bottomless pit in the New Testament, and they are in the book of Revelation.

Rev 9:2. He opened the bottomless pit. (The bottomless pit refers to the earth in Rev 9:1. Satan was cast out of heaven to this earth).

Rev 9:11. And they had a king over them the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, but in the Greek, he has the same name Apollyon. (The angel of the bottomless pit is Satan on this earth).

Rev 11:7. When they finished their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war against them, overcome them and kill them. (Satan is described as an angel and a beast in the book of Revelation. Rev 12:9. He killed the witnesses: The Old and New Testament Bible and Christian´s during the French Revolution in this text. The bottomless pit is the earth).

Rev 17:8. The beast that you saw, was, and is not, and will ascend out of the bottomless pit and go to perdition. And those who dwell on the earth will marvel, whose names are not written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world, when they see the sea beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (This beast who ascended out of the bottomless pit refers to Satan after the 1,000 years of millennium on this desolate earth).

Rev 20:1-3. Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, having the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years: and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished. (At the Second Coming of Christ, the saints are resurrected to heaven, the unbelieving wicked are all destroyed by Christ at the Armageddon war, and Satan is bound to this desolate earth for 1,000 years).

Conclusion

The bottomless pit refers to this earth where Satan and his angels (demons) live. This earth can be both inhabited or desolate during the millennium in the future.

When did these two witnesses representing the Old and the New testament Bible were killed in the history of the Church?

“It had been Rome´s policy, under a profession of reverence for the Bible, to keep it locked up in an unknown tongue and hidden away from people. Under her rule the witnesses prophesied `clothed in sackcloth`. But another power – the beast from the bottomless pit – was to arise to make open, avowed war upon the Word of God.

According to the words of the prophet, then, a little before the year 1798 some power of satanic origin and character would rise to make war upon the Bible. And in the land where the testimony of God´s two witnesses should thus be silenced, there would be manifest the atheism of the Pharaoh and the licentiousness of Sodom.

This prophecy has received a most exact and striking fulfillment in the history of France. During the Revolution, in 1793, `the world for the first time heard an assembly of men, born and educated in civilization, and assuming the right to govern one of the finest European nations, uplift their united voice to deny the most solemn truth which man´s soul receives, and renounce unanimously the belief and worship of a Deity.”[2]

“The atheistical power that ruled in France during the Revolution and the Reign of Terror, did wage such a war against God and His holy Word as the world had never witnessed. The worship of the deity was abolished by the National Assembly. Bibles were collected and publicly burned with every possible manifestation of scorn. The law of God was trampled underfoot. The institutions of the Bible were abolished. The weekly rest day was set aside, and in its stead every tenth day was devoted to reveling and blasphemy. Baptism and communion were prohibited.”[3]

Rev 11:8. And their dead bodies will lie in the streets of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

What is the great city in the book of Revelation? Rev 16:19. Now the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.

The great city in the book of Revelation is Babylon combined with many cities and countries of the world that do not believe in God and his commandments.

What happened to the city of Sodom in the Old Testament? Because the city of Sodom was given up to depravity, and the majority of the men wanted to have homosexual sex, that is they wanted to rape the two angels that were visiting Lot, God decided to destroy the city with brimstone and fire. Gen 19. During the French Revolution the morals from the Bible were completely rejected and depravity enclosed the majority living in France.

Why Egypt? When Moses and his brother Aaron visited Pharaoh to ask him to release the Israelite’s from the land of slavery in Egypt he replied in Ex 5:2. And Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I do not know the Lord, nor will I let Israel go?” Pharaoh was an atheist just like many who took part in the French revolution.

Rev 11:8. Where also our Lord was crucified. Christ was crucified in Jerusalem, so how does this effect the French Revolution. When it says the word also in the text, it is not denoting the same time as the Revolution but indicating time during the history of France. But Christ did not die during the history of France. But his disciples in the form of believers were persecuted during the history of France and were killed.

Galatians 2:20. Paul says in Galatians, “I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me.” Christian believers who were protestants, like the Waldenses, Albigenses and Huguenots were killed in their thousands if not millions for there belief in the Bible by the papacy during the history of France. Believers in the form of Christ were crucified that is killed because of their belief in the Bible and refusing to believe in the creeds of the Roman Catholic Church. The worst of these killings was the St. Bartholomew Massacre. “The king of France, urged on by Romish priests and prelates, lent his sanction to the dreadful work. A bell, tolling at dead of midnight, was a signal for the slaughter. Protestants in their thousands, sleeping quietly in their homes, trusting to the plighted honour of their king, were dragged forth without a warning and murdered in cold blood.”[4]

Rev 11:8. Their bodies lay in the streets. This is referring to the two witnesses that is the Old and New Testament Bible and their teachings plus believers in Christ.

“The atheistical power that ruled in France during the Revolution and the Reign of Terror, did wage such a war against God and His holy Word as the world had never witnessed. The worship of the deity was abolished by the National Assembly. Bibles were collected and publicly burned with every possible manifestation of scorn.”[5]

Rev 11:9. Then those from the peoples, tribes, tongues, and nations will see their dead bodies three-and-half-days, and not allow their dead bodies to be put into graves.

Using the year for a day principle explained in Rev 11:2 the 3½ days in prophecy are 3½ years. Hence, this period began on November 10, 1793, when a decree, was issued in Paris, abolished religion, to June 17, 1797, when, it is held, the French government removed restrictions against the practice of religion.[6]

Rev 11:11. Now after three-and-a-half days the breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them.

“It was in 1793 that the decrees which abolished the Christian religion and set aside the Bible passed by the French assembly. Three years and a half later a resolution rescinding these decrees, thus granting toleration to the scriptures, was adopted by the same body – – -.”[7]

Rev 11:12. And they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, “Come up here.” And they ascended to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies saw them.

As a result of the resurrection of the two witnesses, “In 1804 the British and Foreign Bible Society was organized – – -. It (The Bible) has been translated into many hundreds of languages and dialects.”[8]

Rev 11:13. In the same hour (Greek text: In that day) there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. In the earthquake seven thousand people were killed, and the rest were afraid and gave glory to the God of heaven.

“France was shaken as if by an earthquake. Religion, law, social order, the family, the State, and the Church-all were smitten down by the impious hand that had been lifted against the law of God.”[9]

Which city are we talking about? Rev 11:8. And their dead bodies will lie in the streets of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. The great city is referring to Spiritual Babylon. Why a tenth of the city of Babylon? Maybe it has to do with the ten kingdoms that started in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire in Dan 7:7.8.20.24. The ten horns are ten kings who shall arise from this kingdom (referring to the fourth beast in Dan 7:7 symbolizing Rome). The ten kingdoms are the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Heruli, Franks, Suevi, Alamanni, Anglo Saxons, Lombards, and Burgundians. The collapse of Rome was around A.D. 476. When the text Rev 11:13 says a tenth of the city fell, it would imply that one of the ten kingdoms of Europe which would be the Franks (France) fell.

Rev 11:14. The second woe is past. Behold, the third woe is coming quickly.

There are three woes during the period of the seven trumpets and they start in Rev 8:13., at the end of the fourth trumpet.

The first woe covers the period of the fifth trumpet, that is the rise of Muslim Turkey against the Byzantine church and the reformation in Europe. This was a warning to the Church. Rev 9:12.

The second woe covers the period of the sixth trumpet as warnings to the Church. Rev 11:14. This includes the fall of the Muslim Turkish Empire, the sweet and bitter experience of the Adventists during 1844, the two witnesses representing the Old and the New Testament Bible along with those who preached the word, were killed during the French Revolution.

The third woe covers the period of the seventh trumpet as warnings to the Church. Rev 11:14-19. This period includes God´s kingdom proclaimed, the war between Satan and his subjects against the Christ and the church. The judgment takes place before the second coming of Christ.

[1] Leo XIII, Apostolic Constitution Officiorum ac Munerum, Jan. 25, 1887, art. 1 `Of the Prohibition of Books,` chap 3, trans. In The Great Encyclical Letters of the Pope Leo XIII (New York: Benziger, 1903) pp. 412.413.

[2] Sir Walter Scott, Life of Napoleon, vol. 1, ch. 17.

[3] Ellen G. White, Confrontation, 269.270.273.274.

[4] Ibid., 272.

[5] Ibid., 273.

[6] Francis D. Nichols, Edit., Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary Vol. 7 (Washington D.C: Review & Herald Pub. Assoc., 1980), 803.

[7] Ellen G. White, Confrontation, 287.

[8] Ibid., 287.

[9] Ibid., 286.

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